Sze DY, Mackey SC. MR guidance of sympathetic nerve blockade: measurement of vasomotor response initial experience in seven patients. Radiology. 2002;223(2):574-580.
The authors performed sympathetic nerve blockades in seven patients with peripheral ischemia and possible autonomic dysfunction. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to guide needle placement, to monitor distribution of injected agents, and to measure increases in blood flow, which were as much as 10-fold. MR imaging can provide both procedural imaging guidance and measurement of efficacy for sympathetic nerve blocks.