Mackey S, Lucca A, Soneji D, Kaplan K, Glover G. (681).; 2006.
Carroll I, Kaplan K, Mackey S. (754).; 2006.


Shinaman RC, Mackey S. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Curr. Pain Headache Rep. 2005;9(1):24-29.
Sophisticated regional anesthesia techniques have experienced substantial growth throughout the past 5 years for acute and chronic pain management. The recognition that regional anesthesia leads to superior postoperative outcomes in acute pain management and to an increased understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic pain has led to increased use of continuous peripheral nerve catheters. Furthermore, the availability of new equipment and techniques specifically designed to facilitate effective catheter placement has increased interest and adoption of peripheral nerve catheters to manage painful conditions. This has become particularly relevant as the scope of ambulatory surgery continues to grow. To maximize success rates with continuous peripheral nerve catheters, clinicians must be intimately aware of the pertinent regional anatomy and technical issues surrounding placement and maintenance of continuous nerve blockade. The recent development of outpatient infusion systems and novel anesthetics has been exciting and is likely to lead to an increase in the use of continuous peripheral catheter techniques. The consistent recognition that these techniques dramatically increase patient satisfaction should dictate an increasing presence in the field of pain management throughout the next several years.
deCharms C, Maeda F, Glover GH, et al. Control over brain activation and pain learned by using real-time functional MRI. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2005;102(51):18626-18631.
If an individual can learn to directly control activation of localized regions within the brain, this approach might provide control over the neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate behavior and cognition and could potentially provide a different route for treating disease. Control over the endogenous pain modulatory system is a particularly important target because it could enable a unique mechanism for clinical control over pain. Here, we found that by using real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) to guide training, subjects were able to learn to control activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), a region putatively involved in pain perception and regulation. When subjects deliberately induced increases or decreases in rACC fMRI activation, there was a corresponding change in the perception of pain caused by an applied noxious thermal stimulus. Control experiments demonstrated that this effect was not observed after similar training conducted without rtfMRI information, or using rtfMRI information derived from a different brain region, or sham rtfMRI information derived previously from a different subject. Chronic pain patients were also trained to control activation in rACC and reported decreases in the ongoing level of chronic pain after training. These findings show that individuals can gain voluntary control over activation in a specific brain region given appropriate training, that voluntary control over activation in rACC leads to control over pain perception, and that these effects were powerful enough to impact severe, chronic clinical pain.
Soneji D, Gabrieli JDE, Mackey SC. Control over brain activation and pain learned by using real-time functional MRI. Proceedings of the. 2005.
If an individual can learn to directly control activation of localized regions within the brain, this approach might provide control over the neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate behavior and cognition and could potentially provide a different route for treating disease …


Mackey S. Mechanisms of inflammatory pain: therapeutic implications. J. Clin. Rheumatol. 2004;10(3 Suppl):S5—S11.
The study and treatment of clinical pain has historically identified particular pain syndromes and linked their etiology with disease factors. Missing in this approach is consideration of the mechanisms accounting for the pain that is experienced by the patient. The recent increase in our understanding of how peripheral and central mechanisms contribute to the perception of pain, including the identified role of prostaglandins, has led to a shift in treatment strategy to directly target these mechanisms. This article provides a brief overview of pain mechanisms, focusing on inflammatory pain, and discusses the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors as analgesic agents.
Mackey SC, Maeda F. Functional imaging and the neural systems of chronic pain. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 2004;15(3):269-288.
Pain remains a serious health care problem affecting millions of individuals, costing billions of dollars, and causing an immeasurable amount of human suffering. In designing improved therapies, there is still much to learn about peripheral nociceptor, nerves, and the spinal cord, and brain stem modulatory systems. Nevertheless, it is the brain that presents us with an incredible opportunity to understand the experience we call pain. Functional neuroimaging is helping to unlock the secrets of the sensory and emotional components of pain and its autonomic responses. These techniques are helping us to understand that pain is not a static disease with the pathologic findings localized to the periphery but is instead a highly plastic condition affecting multiple central neural systems. Functional neuroimaging is transforming our understanding of the neurobiology of pain and will be instrumental in helping us to design more rational treatments ultimately aimed at reducing the impact of pain on our patients. It is opening windows into the function of the brain that were previously closed.
Ochsner KN, Knierim K, Ludlow DH, et al. Reflecting upon feelings: an fMRI study of neural systems supporting the attribution of emotion to self and other. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 2004;16(10):1746-1772.
Understanding one s own and other individual s emotional states is essential for maintaining emotional equilibrium and strong social bonds. Although the neural substrates supporting ref lection upon one s own feelings have been investigated, no studies have directly examined attributions about the internal emotional states of others to determine whether common or distinct neural systems support these abilities. The present study sought to directly compare brain regions involved in judging one s own, as compared to another individual s, emotional state. Thirteen participants viewed mixed valence blocks of photos drawn from the International Affective Picture System while whole-brain fMRI data were collected. Preblock cues instructed participants to evaluate either their emotional response to each photo, the emotional state of the central figure in each photo, or (in a baseline condition) whether the photo was taken indoors or outdoors. Contrasts indicated (1) that both self and other judgments activated the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), the superior temporal gyrus, and the posterior cingulate/precuneus, (2) that self judgments selectively activated subregions of the MPFC and the left temporal cortex, whereas (3) other judgments selectively activated the left lateral prefrontal cortex (including Broca s area) and the medial occipital cortex. These results suggest (1) that self and other evaluation of emotion rely on a network of common mechanisms centered on the MPFC, which has been hypothesized to support mental state attributions in general, and (2) that medial and lateral PFC regions selectively recruited by self or other judgments may be involved in attention to, and elaboration of, internally as opposed to externally generated information.


The authors performed sympathetic nerve blockades in seven patients with peripheral ischemia and possible autonomic dysfunction. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to guide needle placement, to monitor distribution of injected agents, and to measure increases in blood flow, which were as much as 10-fold. MR imaging can provide both procedural imaging guidance and measurement of efficacy for sympathetic nerve blocks.